Louise Bourgeois, Paris, Centre pompidou, Beaubourg.


Exhibition Louise Bourgeois,  until june, 2,  au centre Pompidou,  Paris 4e. Tél. : 01-44-78-12-33.

"My name is Louise Bourgeois Josephine. My father called Louis, my mother Josephine. All my work, all my subjects have found their inspiration in my childhood." Louise Bourgeois, artist born in France in 1911, emigrated to the United States in 1938, and American citizen since 1951, using as the subject of her works as her memories. And, in order to signify that this is not a form of self, she said: "If you can not resolve to abandon the past, then you need to recreate. That is what I have always done. Also, there is a great temptation not to comment on his work in the light of his biography, to trace the locations of childhood, the apartment Boulevard Saint-Germain, lycée Fénelon, where she made her study, the parental home of Choisy-le-Roi, the grandparents in Clamart. The temptation is great because there are sometimes obvious. As one of his first sculptures, a painted wood dating from 1947, entitled The Blind guide the blind. Now, not only is Louise often played this game with his mother and with his father, but at the foot of the grand staircase of the school Fénelon stood then a bronze sculpture she loved, representing Oedipus blinded guided by his daughter Antigone, work disappeared during the war and perhaps due to Jean-Baptiste Hugues. But it turns out that The Blind guiding the blind is an abstract sculpture foreshadowing minimalist art, red and black, suggesting a kind of animal with fourteen feet in the shape of spades. The re-creation of the past, Louise Bourgeois, is not an act of illustration.  Call it an autobiographical fiction, creating false leads, sowing traps, maintaining ambiguities. Large Spiders, for example, huge bronze sculptures, including the series began late in the mid-90, very openly refer to the mother - even one called Mom. In reality, and Josephine Louis Bourgeois restored ancient tapestries, which they sold in a gallery. It can therefore be seen in the spider image of the mother Weaver, reassuring, especially as the artist insists on the protection aspect of the animal (he eats mosquitoes). However, in 1927, the parents of Louise forced to abandon his studies to dedicate himself to the tapestry, diktat and she never accepted that led him to work alone, in secret, in order to pass his Bachelor of philosophy five years later - the job of weaver, suddenly takes on a different connotation. As for the sculptures themselves, bronzes giants, continuing the work magnificently sculptural Germaine Richier (The Ant, The Mantis, and so on.), They can seem threatening. But Louise Bourgeois likes to be afraid, arouse uneasiness, introduced into his work elements repellents. Its first installation in 1974, is called The Destruction of the Father - it will rebuild, father, twenty-five years later, through a book. It takes the form of a bloody cave in which remain indeterminate forms, but organic, the remains of the father, "she said, after the family had carved on the table in the dining room.  Louise hated Louis. He was authoritarian and perverse. He sleeps with the English nurse. The work, inspired surrealist Louis does not show, but referred to the Father, character created by Louise and motivate a singular emotion: both disgust, violence and fascination. He returned in other facilities, all named Cell, in other forms, sometimes phallus, sometimes more allusive but most worrying : a hand or a flask containing a spermatic fluid. The real father, he will long as a kind of taboo since Louise Bourgeois await his death in 1951, to take an American citizen.  With mother, suffering from emphysema, died in 1932, Louise Bourgeois quickly made peace. This involves painting, the first work of the artist who, in Paris, Bissière had as a teacher, then attended the workshop of Fernand Léger. A work of 1938-1940 shows a little girl blue, carrying a bouquet of white flowers on the tomb of his mother. The work is called Repair. Thereafter, Louise Bourgeois radicalizes his speech on Women (Girl, 1968, a sort of penis-vulva latex), militates in feminist movements from the mid-60s (Woman and Woman-pile-knife, 1970) , and produces performances, A banquet / A fashion, particularly in 1978, in which she appears dressed in a robe covered with breast forms, including those at the bottom of garment longer evoke penis. They are also feminists who allow Louise Bourgeois to be truly recognized in the United States in the late 70's. Is it useful to specify that Louise is not easy. Recently she still loved gently sadiser the courtiers who came to visit his studio in New York. It never has been, docile, nor to Fénelon and in New York, where, in 1950, she protests with his friends Rothko, Pollock, Barnett Newman, de Kooning against the conservatism of the Moma. Louise Bourgeois is a woman and an artist free. She can carve wooden characters very minimalist (his early works). Tuscan marble carving in a very realistic. pile of pebbles on a rod of iron. manufacture cages grills (Cells), where scenes occur family drama (Red Room, Parents, 1994). suspend a realistic character gilded bronze whose body bent illustrates the arc of hysteria Charcot (series Arched Figure); embroider handkerchiefs; sewing fabric heads, or designing these giant spiders, the Spiders, which holds the abdomen often strange things, the objects of desire which is the central subject of his fiction: the desire to live, to be, to love. Louise knows how to find the forms enabling him to exhibit their modestly, to prevent him from being a long complaint and transform fear, pain, pleasure in a universal language.

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